Aqueous extraction of anions from coal and fly ash followed by ion-chromatographic determination

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Aleksandra M. Tasić
Ivana D. Sredović Ignjatović
Ljubiša M. Ignjatović
Danijel Đuranović
Mališa P. Antić


Three different techniques were applied for the aqueous extraction of anions from coal and fly ash: rotary mixer- and ultrasonic-assisted extraction with different duration time, and microwave-assisted extraction at different temperatures. Validation showed that the ion-chromatographic method was suitable for the analysis of anions in coal and fly ash extracts. The variations in the amounts of anions using different extraction times during rotary-assisted extraction were minimal for all investigated anions. The efficiency of ultra­sound-assisted extraction of anions from coal depended on the sonication time and was highest at 30 min. The ultrasound-assisted extraction was less efficient for the extraction of anions from fly ash than rotary-assisted extraction. Inc­rease of temperature in the microwave-assisted extraction had a positive effect on the amounts of all anions extracted from coal and sulphate from fly ash, while the amounts of fluoride and chloride in fly ash extracts decreased. The microwave-assisted extraction of coal at 150 °C was compared with standard ASTM methods, and results were in good agreement only for chloride. Changes in the pH value and conductivity during ultrasound-assisted extraction were measured in order to explain changes on the surface of coal particles in contact with water and different processes that occur under environmental conditions.

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A. M. Tasić, I. D. Sredović Ignjatović, L. M. Ignjatović, D. Đuranović, and M. P. Antić, “Aqueous extraction of anions from coal and fly ash followed by ion-chromatographic determination”, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 1441–1453, Dec. 2016.
Environmental Chemistry


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