Determination of tramadol in pharmaceutical forms and urine samples using a boron-doped diamond electrode

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Ertuğrul Keskin
Shabnam Allahverdiyeva
Esma Şeyho
Yavuz Yardım


The present work describes the electroanalytical investigation and a novel voltammetric method for the cheap, fast and simple quantification of tramadol (TRH) using a boron-doped diamond electrode. TRH dis­played one well-defined, irreversible and adsorption-controlled oxidation peak at about 1.58 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in Britton–Robinson buffer (BR, 0.1 mol L-1, pH 3.0) using the cyclic voltammetry technique. The voltammetric res­ponses of the oxidation peaks are dependent on pH and their sensitivity was significantly enhanced in the presence of surfactant media (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS). Under the optimized experiment conditions, employing the square-wave strip­ping mode, it was found that there was an excellent correlation between oxid­ation peak current and the TRH concentration in the range 0.25 to 50.0 μg mL-1 (8.34×10-7–1.67×10-4 mol L-1), with a detection limit of 0.072 μg mL-1 (2.40×10-7 mol L-1) in 0.1 mol L-1 BR buffer (pH 3.0) solution comprising 8×10-4 mol L-1 SDS at 1.52 V (after 30 s accumulation at open-circuit condit­ions). The developed approach could be used for the quantification of TRH in pharmaceutical formulations and spiked human urine samples with acceptable recoveries.


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E. Keskin, S. Allahverdiyeva, E. Şeyho, and Y. Yardım, “Determination of tramadol in pharmaceutical forms and urine samples using a boron-doped diamond electrode”, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 923–937, Jul. 2020.
Analytical Chemistry


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