Ambient air particles: The use of ion chromatography and multivariate techniques in the analysis of water-soluble substances Scientific paper

Main Article Content

Žaklina N. Todorović
Jelena M. Radulović
Ivana D. Sredović Ignjatović
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2471-9242
Ljubiša M. Ignjatović
Antonije E. Onjia
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5694-7960

Abstract

Seventeen water-soluble substances (of sodium, ammonium, potas­sium, magnesium, calcium, formate, methanesulfonate, glyoxylate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, glutarate, succinate, malate, malonate, sulfate and oxalate) in 94 samples of particle matter in the ambient air, collected over ten months, in a suburb of Belgrade (Serbia), were determined by ion chromatography. To apportion the sources of the air pollution, the log-transformed data were pro­cessed by applying multivariate techniques. Principal component and factor analysis identified three main factors controlling the data variability: stationary combustion processes with the highest loadings of oxalate, malonate and mal­ate; landfill emission and secondary inorganic aerosol characterized by high levels of ammonium, nitrate and sulfate; a contribution of mineral dust com­posed of magnesium, calcium and chloride. The hierarchical cluster analysis pointed out a differentiation of the samples into five groups belonging to dif­ferent variables inputs. For the classification of ambient air samples using nine selected ions, the recognition ability of linear discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbors, and soft independent modeling of class analogy were 87.0, 94.6, and 97.8 %, respectively. Time-series analysis showed that the traffic emission is more pronounced in winter in contrast to the mineral dust influence, while the effect of waste combustion exhibits no trend.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Žaklina N. Todorović, J. M. Radulović, I. D. Sredović Ignjatović, L. M. Ignjatović, and A. E. Onjia, “Ambient air particles: The use of ion chromatography and multivariate techniques in the analysis of water-soluble substances: Scientific paper”, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., vol. 86, no. 7-8, pp. 753-766, Aug. 2021.
Section
Environmental Chemistry

References

A. Agarwal, A. Satsangi, A. Lakhani, K. M. Kumari, Chemosphere 242 (2020) 125132 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125132)

M. Dos Santos, D. L. Dawidowski, E. Gautier, P. Smichowski, Microchem. J. 91 (2009) 133 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2008.09.001)

K. Swami, C. D. Judd, J. Orsini, K. X. Yang, L. Husain, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 369 (2001) 63 (https://doi.org/10.1007/s002160000575)

N. N. Naing, K. B. Yeo, H. K. Lee, J. Chromatogr., A 1612 (2020) 460646 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.460646)

J. Xu, J. He, H. Xu, D. Ji, C. Snape, H. Yu, C. Jia, C. Wang, J. Gao, RSC Adv. 8 (2018) 34136 (https://doi.org/10.1039/C8RA04991B)

T. Fosco, M. Schmeling, Environ. Monit. Assess. 130 (2007) 187 (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-9388-1)

A. Arias, R. J. N. Bettencourt da Silva, M. F. G. F. C. Camoes, C. M. R. R. Oliveira, Talanta 104 (2013) 10 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2012.11.024)

S. Karthikeyan, S. W. See, R. Balasubramanian, Anal. Lett. 40 (2007) 793 (https://doi.org/10.1080/00032710601017920)

Y. I. Tsai, L. Y. Hsieh, T. H. Weng, Y. C. Ma, S. C. Kuo, Anal. Chim. Acta 626 (2008) 78 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.07.041)

T. Zhang, J. J. Cao, X. X. Tie, Z. X. Shen, S. X. Liu, H. Ding, Y. M. Han, G. H. Wang, K. F. Ho, J. Qiang, W. T. Li, Atmos. Res. 102 (2011) 110 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.06.014)

L. Mu, L. Zheng, M. Liang, M. Tian, X. Li, D. Jing, Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 19 (2019) 2396 (https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2019.03.0109 )

A. Mihajlidi-Zelić, D. Đorđević, D. Relić, I. Tošić, Lj. Ignjatović, M. Stortini, A. Gambaro, Open Chem. 13 (2015) 245 (https://doi.org/10.1515/chem-2015-0010)

D. Đorđević, T. Mihajlidi-Zelić, D. Relić, Lj. Ignjatović, J. Huremović, A.M. Stortini, A. Gambaro, Atmos. Environ. 46 (2012) 309 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.09.057)

H. Wang, J. An, M. Cheng, L. Shen, B. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Wang, Q. Duan, A. Sullivan, L. Xia, Chemosphere 148 (2016) 526 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.01.066)

K. Kawamura, S. Bikkina, Atmos. Res. 170 (2016) 140 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.11.018)

A. Röhrl, G. Lammel, Chemosphere 46 (2002) 1195 (https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00243-0)

K. Kawamura, Anal. Chem. 65 (1993) 3505 (https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00071a030)

K. Kawamura, L. A. Barrie, D. Toom-Sauntry, Atmos. Environ. 44 (2010) 5316 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.08.051)

Ž. Todorović, Lj. Rajaković, A. Onjia, Hem. Ind. 71 (2017) 27 (https://doi.org/10.2298/HEMIND151107014T)

Ž. Todorović, Lj. Rajaković, A. Onjia, J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 81 (2016) 661 (https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC150927022T)

D. Čičkarić, I. Deršek-Timotić, A. Onjia, Lj. Rajaković, J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 70 (2005) 995 (https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC0507995C)

E. I. Tolis, D. E. Saraga, G. Z. Ammari, E. I. Gkanas, T. Gougoulas, C. C. Papaioannou, A. K. Sarioglou, E. Kougioumtzidis, A. Skemperi, J. G. Bartzis, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 12 (2014) 643 (https://doi.org/10.2478/s11532-014-0531-5)

A. Onjia, Chemometric approach to the experiment optimization and data evaluation in analytical chemistry, University of Belgrade – Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade, 2016 (ISBN 978-86-7401-338-0)

H. Wang, D. Shooter, Atmos. Environ. 35 (2001) 6031 (https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00437-X)

S. Dragović, A. Onjia, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65 (2007) 218 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2006.07.005)

S. Razić, A. Onjia, Am. J. Enio. Viticult. 61 (2010) 506 (https://doi.org/10.5344/ajev.2010.10002)

G. D. Thurston, J. D. Spengler, Atmos. Environ. 19 (1985) 9 (https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(85)90132-5)

S. R. Souza, P. C. Vasconcellos, L. R. F. Carvalho, Atmos. Environ. 33 (1999) 2563 (https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00383-5)

L. Slavković, B. Škrbić, N. Miljević, A. Onjia, Environ. Chem. Lett. 2 (2004) 105 (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-004-0073-8)

J. H. Ward, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 58 (1963) 236 (https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1963.10500845)

B. Kowalski, C. Bender, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94 (1972) 5632 (https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00771a016)

S. Wold, Pattern Recog. 8 (1976) 127 (https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-3203(76)90014-5)

M. Possanzini, V. Di Palo, A. Cecinato, C. Balducci, Anal. Lett. 34 (2001) 957. (https://doi.org/10.1081/AL-100103605).

Most read articles by the same author(s)