Application of principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses in classification of the Serbian bottled waters and the comparison with waters from some European countries

Jelena Cvejanov, Biljana Škrbić


Major ions contents of the bottled waters were analyzed by principal component (PCA) and hierarhical cluster (HCA) analysis in order to investigate if these techniques could provide information necessary for classifications of the water brands marketed in Serbia. Data on the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3- and total dissolved solids-TDS of 33 bottled waters was used as input data set. The waters were separated into three main clusters according to their levels of TDS, Na+ and HCO3-; subclustering revealed a group of the soft waters with the lowest total hardness. Based on the determined chemical parameters the Serbian waters were further compared with the available literature data on the bottled waters from some European countries. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report applying the chemometric classification of the bottled waters from different European countries, representing unique attempt in contrast to previous studies reporting the results primarily in a country to country scale. Diverse character of the Serbian bottled waters was demonstrated as well as usefulness of PCA and HCA in fast classification of the water brands based on the main chemical parameters. 


: chemometrics; anions (Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-); cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+); total dissolved solids

Full Text:

PDF (1,362 kB)


A. Ikem, S. Odueyungbo, N. O. Egiebor, K. Nyavor, Sci. Total Environ. 285 (2002) 165

U. Fugedi, L. Kuti, G. Jordan, B. Kerek, J. Geochemical Explor. 107 (2010) 305

C. Lourenço, L. Ribeiro, J. Cruz, J. Geochemical Explor. 107 (2010) 362

Z. Peh, Š. Ajka, J. Halami, J. Geochemical Explor. 107 (2010) 227

L. Bityukova, V. Petersell, J. Geochemical Explor. 107 (2010) 238

R. Cidu, F. Frau, P. Tore, J. Food Compos. Anal. 24 (2011) 184

M. Brenčić, T. Ferjan, M. Gosar, J. Geochemical Explor. 107 (2010) 400

A. Astel, R. Michalski, Ł. Aleksandra, M. Jab, K. Bigus, S. Szopa, A. Kwieci, J. Geochemical Explor. 143 (2014) 136

C. Güler, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 86 (2007) 86

A. Baba, F. S. Ereeş, Ü. Hıçsönmez, S. Çam, H. Özdılek, Environ. Monit. Assess. 139 (2008) 277

S. A. Oyebog, A. A. Ako, G. E. Nkeng, E. C. Suh, J. Geochemical Explor. 112 (2012) 118

K. Y. Kermanshahi, R. Tabaraki, H. Karimi, M. Nikorazm, S. Abbasi, Food Chem. 120 (2010) 1218

D. Bertoldi, L. Bontempo, R. Larcher, G. Nicolini, S. Voerkelius, G. D. Lorenz, H. Ueckermann, H. Froeschl, M. J. Baxter, J. Hoogewerff, P. Brereton, J. Food Compos. Anal. 24 (2011) 376

Off. J. Eur. Union L164 (2009) 45

T. Petrović, M. Zlokolica-Mandić, N. Veljković, D. Vidojević, J. Geochemical Explor. 107 (2010) 373

M. Birke, C. Reimann, A. Demetriades, U. Rauch, H. Lorenz, B. Harazim, W. Glatte, J. Geochemical Explor. 107 (2011) 217

E. Reisenhofer, G. Adami, P. Barbieri, Water Res. 32 (1998) 1193

B. Škrbić, K. Szyrwińska, N. Durišić-Mladenović, P. Nowicki, J. Lulek, Environ. Int. 36 (2010) 862

Z. Predojević, B. Škrbić, N. Đurišić-Mladenović, J. Serbian Chem. Soc. 77 (2012) 815

S. Ražić, A. Onjia, Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 61 (2010) 506

M. Savić Biserčić, L. Pezo, I. Sredović Ignjatović, L. Ignjatović, A. Savić, U. Jovanović, V. Andrić, J. Serbian Chem. Soc. 81 (2016) 813

N. Radosavljević-Stevanović, J. Marković, S. Agatović-Kustrin, S. Ražić, Nat. Prod. Res. 28 (2014) 511

T. Stafilov, B. Škrbić, J. Klánová, P. Čupr, I. Holoubek, M. Kočov, N. Durišić-Mladenović, J. Chemom. 25 (2011) 262

N. Đurišić-Mladenović, B. D. Škrbić, A. Zabaniotou, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 59 (2016) 649

H. F. Kaiser, J. Rice, Educ. Psychol. Meas. (1974) 111

M. Martinović, M. Milivojević, Serbia Country Update, in Proc. World Geotherm. Congr., Bali, 2010.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 J. Serb. Chem. Soc.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

IMPACT FACTOR 0.822 (131 of 166 journals)
5 Year Impact Factor 1.015 (118 of 166 journals)